This website was created for the Tide & Time exhibition at the National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool. The information it contains is believed to be accurate – if you notice any mistakes, have content to contribute, or suggestions for improvements, please contact the WebTeam.

For more information on any of the topics contained in the site, the following are reccommended as further reading:


  • An Inventory of Tide Prediction Machines, Philip L. Woodworth, 07/07/15,
  • Captain Williams great obsession, New Scientist 17/06/06, Geoff Watts.
  • Finding the amplitudes and phases to use for the Tide Prediction Machines 11/05/15, Philip L. Woodworth
  • A series of lectures and web content concerning tides and surges - Kevin Horsburgh
  • 100 Local Heroes – Adam Hart Davies, The History Press, 2013
  • Predicting the Ocean Tide, Philip L. Woodworth, Bulletin of the Liverpool Nautical Research Society, January 2015
  • The Historical Development of Tidal Science, and the Liverpool Tidal Institute, D.E. Cartwright, Oceanography of the Past, ed. Sears and Merriman, 1980
  • The tide predictions for D-Day, Bruce Parker, Physics Today, September 2011, page 35
  • Tides – a scientific history, D.E. Cartwright, (Cambridge 1999)



The Tide & Time team is extremely grateful to all who have contributed information used in the exhibition, to National Museums Liverpool for the loan of the machines, and to those involved in the delicate operation of bringing them to their current position in the National Oceanography Centre.

Roberts-Légé machine being craned into position