Further reading

For more information on many of the topics on this site, we recommend the the following.

Woodworth, Philip L., 2020. Tide prediction machines at the Liverpool Tidal Institute, History of Geo- and Space Science, 11, 15–29. doi: 10.5194/hgss-11-15-2020

Woodworth, Philip L., 2017. Finding the amplitudes and phases to use for the Bidston Tide Prediction Machines. Article published on the Bidston Observatory in retrospect website, 23 May 2017 (online 2 June 2017).

Woodworth, Philip L., 2016. An Inventory of Tide Prediction Machines, 71pp. National Oceanography Centre, Research and Consultancy Report 56.

Horsburgh, Kevin, 2015. Regression of the Lunar Nodes. National Tidal and Sea Level Facility, online video 29 September 2015.

Woodworth, Philip L., 2015. Predicting the Ocean Tide, Bulletin of the Liverpool Nautical Research Society, 58(4), 25–28. March 2015.

Parker, Bruce, 2011. The tide predictions for D-Day, Physics Today, 64(9), 35–40, September 2011. doi: 10.1063/PT.3.1257

Watts, Geoff, 2006. Captain William's obsession with tides, New Scientist issue 2556, 17 June 2006 (online 14 June 2006).

Hart-Davis, Adam and Bader, Paul, 1999. 100 Local Heroes, 410pp. The History Press, Cheltenham. ISBN 978-0750923736

Cartwright, David E., 1999. Tides: A Scientific History, 306pp. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521797467

Cartwright, David E., 1980. The Historical Development of Tidal Science, and the Liverpool Tidal Institute. pp240–251 in Oceanography: The Past. Eds. Sears, M. and Merriman, D., Springer Verlag New York. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4613-8090-0_23


Roberts-Légé machine being craned into position, on 5 Aug 2015. Photo: Colin Bell.

The Tide & Time exhibition is extremely grateful to all who have provided information and resources, especially to National Museums Liverpool for the loan of the machines and to those involved in the delicate operation of bringing them to their current position in the National Oceanography Centre.

This site complements the Tide & Time exhibition and the information is believed to be accurate. If you notice any mistakes, have content to contribute or suggestions for improvements, please contact us.